Expected Results

“A test that is defined in terms of one expected result is undefined against the other types of results available from that test.”

—Cem Kaner, 2004 (

Almost 20 years on, that message is still lost on many testers, developers, and managers. Yet, as of today, we have another chance to acknowledge it and to spread the word!

Excellent testing is not really about obtaining the expected result. Excellent testing is far more about experiencing, exploring, and experimenting to reveal the unexpected.

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